CÔTE À CÔTE: ÉTUDE COMPARATIVE DE L’ANGLAIS ET DU FRANÇAIS (FRENCH EDITION)

Table of Contents
Côte à Côte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
A comparative approach to French (and English)
through cognitive analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Avis au professeur et à l’étudiant : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
La raison d’être de cet ouvrage : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
L’objectif : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
L’usage du manuel : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
PREMIÈRE PARTIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
CHAPITRE 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
La notion d’unité . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
CHAPITRE 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
L’utilisation des dictionnaires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
CHAPITRE 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
La caractérisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
CHAPITRE 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
La caractérisation (suite) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
CHAPITRE 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
L’expression du nombre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
CHAPITRE 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
La dérivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
CHAPITRE 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
La phrase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
DEUXIEME PARTIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Procédés fréquents de traduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
CHAPITRE 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
I. Procédés de traduction littérale : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Jacques Bourgeacq
4
II. Procédés de traduction oblique : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
TROISIEME PARTIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
CHAPITRE 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
L’articulation du discours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
I. Les connecteurs : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
II. Coordination et subordination : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
CHAPITRE 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Les niveaux de langue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
La tonalité du message : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Other Foreign Language & Culture Books by Virginia Institute Press . . . . . . . . 138

A comparative approach to French (and English)
through cognitive analysis
Rationale:
Anyone who speaks another language besides his/her own has surely
noticed many diff erences in the nature of vocabulary, sentence structures,
expressions, and imagery. We sometimes hear such sayings as: «Language
is culture,» or «A language is an open window into a culture.» Yet in our
foreign language courses, we teachers seldom create an opportunity to
have our students ponder on what causes these diff erences. Th ere exists,
however, a school of linguistics that views language occurrences and
peculiarities as refl ecting conceptions; mental grasping of the realities
we experience. Due to the infl uence of a positivist school of linguistics
prevalent in the United States, which is centered on description alone,
our foreign language pedagogy has been almost entirely separated from
this philosophical approach.
Th e philosophical approach maintains that common realities,
objects, actions, thoughts, etc., are mentally grasped by people of
diff erent cultures in their own specifi c manner, mostly unconsciously.
Th ese cultural perspectives, inherited from the past, are still refl ected in
the current formulation of their languages. Th us the language we began
to learn at birth leads us to view and express our surrounding world from
our specifi c angles and logic. Simple objects are named diff erently from
language to language: a fl ashlight is a lampe de poche (pocket lamp) in
French. Across cultures, actions and situations do not oft en coincide linJacques
Bourgeacq
6
guistically either: for example, when an English speaker says: «He lost his
life in an accident,» a French speaker instinctively will say: «Il a trouvé
la mort dans un accident.» (translated literally: He found death in an
accident.). Yet we are speaking of the same thing. And there is nothing
poetic or stylistic in this last sentence; it simply is the «normal,» idiomatic
way each of the two cultures views this situation. When an American gets
on the bus, the Frenchman climbs up in the bus: «Il monte dans le bus.»
Th e American enters onto a surface (on the bus); the Frenchman steps up
into a space, a volume (in, inside the bus). And there are millions of such
diff erences between two languages…
Th ere are also signifi cant distinctions in the typical patterns and
tendencies that refl ect the specifi c vision of each language. Exploring
them can stimulate the learning of a foreign language, since this type of
linguistic/cultural analysis appeals to the age and intellectual maturity of
a university student (as using this approach for many years in undergraduate
courses has shown the author). Th is study ultimately leads to the
student’s realization that every culture is right in its own vision and logic;
and no culture is wrong. It also provides an incentive to resist the natural
and easy tendency to use the structures of our native language to speak in
the other language. And ultimately it promotes tolerance towards other
cultural views.
One obvious way of off ering such an opportunity to our students
is through the situation of translation, which places two languages side
by side to express oft en common realities. Since pedagogical materials
based on this approach are in short supply to achieve this objective, this
proposed textbook should help to fi ll a gap. It should be understood that
these materials constitute much less an introductory translation textbook,
than a diff erent approach to language acquisition. Th is explains why this
textbook can fi t in several classroom situations, as indicated below.
Methodology:
Regarding teaching materials, there is one exception though: J.-P.
Vinay and J. Darbelnet’s well-known Stylistique comparée du français et
de l’anglais (Paris: Didier, 1977), off ers this approach. Th eir theoretical
book and the two Cahiers d’exercices (Montreal: Beauchemin), were
designed for graduate level courses. In our view, however, this approach
should be introduced at an earlier stage in the foreign language
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Côté à Côté
curriculum, before bad habits have a chance to crystallize, namely at the
undergraduate level (where it has already been tested for years). So, in
the footsteps of Vinay and Darbelnet, the textbook we are proposing here
is intended for courses at the intermediate and 3rd-year French levels. It
can be used:
1) for a basic introduction to translation
2) as supplemental materials to a traditional intermediate program
3) as supplemental materials to a 3rd-year composition course (translation
being a type of composition), or
4) as an addition to a grammar review.
Th is textbook contains a large selection of exercises, introduced by
immediate theoretical explanations and directions. For greater exposure
to French, the entire book is written in clear and simple French, with the
more diffi cult words and expressions instantly translated in parentheses
into the text. So the fl ow of reading remains fairly uninterrupted, while
providing translations of words and expressions as illustrations. Along
with the exercises, a few excerpts of texts by well-known writers have
been added as authentic examples of the structures being studied in a
given chapter. Th ese excerpts are also utilized for further problem solving.
Ultimate objective:
Th e main objective of this book is not merely to explore through
analysis the diff erences in conception and structures of both languages,
but also to help develop ultimately a deep sense, an «instinct» (and not
pure mechanical memorization) for what is structurally possible in
French and what is not. Reaching this competence is absolutely essential
if one wishes to achieve fl uency in any language, since on a daily basis
we present and react to situations we have never encountered before:
Invention is indeed in the very nature of language. So new combinations
of words must be instantly coined, while respecting the norms of the target
language, and not those of the source language (as is too oft en the case,
enabled as it is by the linguistic permissiveness of the so-called «communicative
» methods of the past 30 years). Short of this competence,
our language learners will keep producing a sort of creole, a hybrid of
English and French called «Frenglish» or «Franglais,» understood mostly
by people who already speak both French and English…

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